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10/60: Make Gravity Visible
Masters Thesis Project: Behavior Design
A Social Health Movement
June 2013
20 weeks
Problem
We spend the bulk of our days in a seated position, often behind a screen. Sitting has become such a norm that daily exercise at the gym is no longer enough to offset all the negative things done to our bodies in a sedentary posture.

Prolonged sitting is a silent epidemic sweeping across the planet, one of the leading factors of obesity, heart related illnesses, high blood pressure, diabetes and some form of cancer. How can people reduce the amount of daily sitting, change a habit that they've learned since a young age?

Objective
Through my studies, I've learned that the sitting problem cannot be solved on an individual level nor through simple awareness. Awareness alone does not generate action. Motivating people to move more is beyond an individual problem - sitting is a societal and cultural issue and unless that is addressed, no long term changes can be sustained.

This project aims to inspire people to leverage their communities and integrate more physical activity in the home, work and societal environments.

The objective is to build a community of people who wants to challenge the normative behavior of sitting.

Solution
10/60: Make Gravity Visible is a social movement to challenge our society to move more, reminding people to be up and moving 10 minutes for every 60 minutes.

In order to build a community of movers, the first step is to develop a platform that supports and fosters this need for interuppting our sitting hours. The fastest way to distribute this information and share ideas is via the internet.

10/60 is facilitated by a website and a smartphone application. The website provides ideas shared by the community to help inspire movement into people’s lives. The app tracks a person’s daily physical activity levels, based on the GPS and accelerometer, and sends a reminder when he/she has been sitting for too long.

How much a person moves is reflected by an personalized avatar’s physical state as well as graphical data by the time of day. Challenges can be submitted within the inner circle of friends to encourage more movement between smaller networks.

10/60 exists on the premise that societal and cultural norms will not change unless we change together.
Initial Thoughts
Initial research included understanding the basic foundations of anatomy, behaviour psychology and human history and philosophy around moderation and becoming bi-pedal.

A survey was distributed across networks to validate how often people sat throughout the day and for what activity. 31 out of 42 stated that they sat an average of 7 hours a day. This pie chart breaks down how these hours are distributed.

Self Experiments: Walking the Talk
Embracing the topic and authenticity mattered. Throughout the project, the challenge was taken to work in the standing position at the early stages of the project. Throughout the process, experimentation was done with various equipment used into today’s office space.

7 Cultural Probes
To get a stronger feel and prototype the possibilities of encouragement by building awareness of the situation and awareness of self, 7 daily log books were designed and distributed to a student from each program at the design school.

The logbooks were intended to help participants track their daily schedule down to the hour - how much movement was experienced for that day, including sitting, standing, 10 minutes of movement, laying down.

In addition to tracking movement, emotions were captured through graphs. The goal was to keep the logbook open and enable them to be the change-maker, adapt the book to any habits or emotions they wish to measure.
5 point process:

1. Pre-interview: explaining research and insights to each participants about dangers of sitting.

2. Interview them about their daily schedule, habits and perception about movement.

3. Distribute the daily log.

4. Send reminders to complete the logbook

5. Post-interview to evaluate if any changes have been made in regards to movement and overall well-being.

Early Adopters
People automatically self initiated ways to stand just by the mere knowledge of the problem. However, for larger gatherings, like during presentations - people were only comfortable when they saw others setting an example first.
Environmental Prototype
The design school was used as the main prototyping ground. Many students often complain about the queues from the two scanning and printing computer terminals in UID Printing Room.

Coincidentally there were two height adjustable tables lying in storage unused. The opportunity was explored and the nonadjustable tables were replaced and chairs removed.

Students immediately noticed the change, many positive comments around the small change was received.

From the observations and brief interviews, standing led people to linger around less and focus more on the task. The perception of the queue was diminished.

Movement Workshop
A workshop on movement was conducted to to gain a stronger sense of what motivates people to move more as well as prototype different movement activities possibilities. Ten students from various programmes participated.

The workshop was both a study as well as a prototype to see what types of activies worked in getting people to move during brainstorming. Workshop activities included: a comparison of what motivates people to move when they are super busy compared to when they are feeling lazy, why do people move vs. sit, how to integrate movement into a sitting journey, an outdoor brainstorming and how to make gravity visible.

The workshop was also designed to challenge the participant’s perception of sitting and create “ambassadors” to spread the word around the dangers of sitting.

Ideation Sketching
Based on the workshop feedback, sketches were made of potential ideas of positive disruptions that could be implemented at UID.

These ideas ranged from small scale quick implementation to larger scale more time consuming ones. The ideas had a mixture of analog object to human, human to computer, human to environment, and human to human interactions.

Evaluation was conducted to compare the viability and difficulty of executing the ideas. Selection was made based on how the ideas provoked movement: awareness, challenge, provide a purpose or serves to remind people.

Grouping the Ideas
The ideas were then categorized around an ecosystem of three layers:

1.home environment
2.work environment
3.societal environment.

This ecosystem later served as guide in developing a design solution.

Behavior Design Experiment
A unique phase in the creative process was prototyping behavioral design experiments. When we think about tables or desk, we tend to use them in a seated posture. The interesting thing about our design school is that every student and staff is equipped with a height adjustable table. By the command of a button, he/she is able to work standing or sitting.

However, from a survey and random counts throughout the school, I found that only 20% of the tables were being used as they were designed. Students would sit and work for hours on end. My immediate thought was that even if an environment provided the luxury of height-adjustable desks, does not guarantee that people will use it.

When we stand, we are burning more calories than sitting and naturally, we tend to move more as it becomes uncomfortable to be still. This 20% surprised me and inspired me to design a behavior experiment to observe normative behavior while generating awareness around the sitting disease and encourage people to use these tables more properly. It was a good time for April Fools

I challenged students and staff to work while standing. With the help of six classmates, 137 chairs were moved to the basement floor and tables raised to an average standing height. A note was left on each desk warning about the dangers of sitting, a challenge request, and a reference number for their chair (that could be picked up at any time). How would people react to starting the morning without their chair and a raised desk?

The outcome was interesting. Some people were very much attached to their chairs and immediately picked it up from the basement; others avoided fetching their chairs by shifting their workstations to nearby rooms with chairs; many enjoyed it and would have never tried or thought about it.

Overall, the result showed that people often looked to their neighbors for inspiration and influence on how to react. Clusters of people who alternated between sitting and standing emerged after the experiment. It no longer looked weird to stand and work.

Some people took the challenge for two weeks. There was still 93 chairs left after the first day, 67 after the second, 38 after the first week and 34 chairs left after two weeks.

The experiment was successful in bridging awareness and action, inspiring the 10/60 social movement, and provided the scale of interruption necessary for people to generate a memorable reflection on sitting moderation.

Lo-fi Prototypes
Wireframes of the web and mobile platforms were sketched using pen and paper to communicate the ideas.

The five people who evaluated the ideas and guided the direction of the final concepts were 3 males and 2 females, 2 Scandinavians and 2 Eastern Europeans and 1 North American, 2 nonfacebook users.

The rougher the wireframe sketches were, the more open users were in their feedback. Iterations were made in between to improve each feedback. Iterations included, adjustment of hierarchy of information, icons, interaction model, messenger component, graphical visualization, reminder mechanisms for both platforms.

Final 10/60 website
The 10/60 website serves as a hub for communicating small to large scale ideas to introduce and inspire movement into the three environments of home, work, and society. Ideas are presented by visual images in order of recency, popularity and innovation. People are free to adapt the ideas as they please.

A cohesive simple user interface and clean identity was chosen for the design direction, to place user-uploaded content at the forefront. The app and avatars were inspired by fitness apps and video games, such as the Wii.

An Example Idea Page
Ideas are presented as videos/images followed by a description of the idea. Creators of the ideas are represented by their avatars, which can also be used to contact them. Files can be: liked, downloaded, forwarded as a challenge, or shared.
New 10/60 Member Signup
A simple signup page with a clear message.
Member's Gravity Profile
Outlines the current movement data linked from the app and a list of movement ideas that user has liked/shared/participated in.
thesis
thesis

Rollover mobile phone images to simulate swipping

The app tracks a person’s daily physical activity. How much a person moves is reflected by a personalized avatar’s physical state as well as graphical data by date and the time of day.

An overview of how each person is doing for the month relative to their friends or close network can provide positive competition, encouragement and reflection of community movement.

thesis
thesis

Challenges can be submitted within the inner circle of friends to encourage more movement. Messaging component promotes supportive motivation between friends.

Personalized messenging reminders can be sent when he/she has been sitting for too long.